Purification is the technological process that is created and activated to remove foreign or polluting substances from liquid and gaseous systems. This process takes place in appropriate facilities called wastewater treatment plants. Purification consists of a series of programmed actions of mechanical, chemical-physical and biological nature. The most common wastewater treatment plants can be divided into two broad types, depending on the matter to be purified: air or water.
Purification can also be done for the soil or subsoil or, more generally, for any other polluted system such as the purification of steel (called refining). In any case, air and water, given their importance for life on Earth, remain preponderant as classes of purification plants.
The purification of water can concern:
• Urban waste treatment;
• The treatment of industrial waste (for example through electro-flotation technology).
Some of the possible outcomes are: reduction of ammonia, nitrogen, sulfur and metals in solution and removal of phosphates.
During the purification of urban waste, we proceed linearly to successive stages, during which actions and specific reactions occur: mechanical separation of coarse particles, sedimentation, bacterial digestion, oxidation (physical, mechanical and microbiological), filtration, final disinfection (sodium hypochlorite, peracetic acid, ozone, ultraviolet rays, chlorine, hypochlorous acid).
All processes involved in the purification cycle are the same as those normally encountered in nature, with maximized speed and yield in the treatment plant.
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